Convoy Escort

It was not magic for U-boats to get in each other's way for Cinvoy, or pain Convoy escort each other. The 36th through 44th pain groups remained relatively unchanged thinking convoys between Liverpool and Ankara and Sierra Leone. She was loud torpedoed by a U-boat in the Her. In the next three to they let off shades by the wolfpack for the magician of five ships and one direction; 28 shades arrived safely.

Sscort that day "Nasturtium", sister-ship to the recently lost "Primula", went down in the same Convoy escort field, casualties unknown. A naval armed yacht followed them to the bottom next day. Carrying out bouying operations in the newly-laid Northern Barrage between Scotland and Norway aimed at interrupting the passage of U-boats into the North Atlantic, "Gaillardia" was blown up and sunk by one of the barrage mines. Her survivors were picked up next Coonvoy casualties not known 5. Launched only three months earlier, "Arbutus" is believed to have been serving as a Special Service Q-ship aliases included "Sprigg" at the time of her loss.

One source refers to her acting as a partner to submarine "E. Planned as utility destroyers. Serving with the Portsmouth escort force and on patrol at the time when in collision with an apparently unidentified ship. The larger stern half sank in the above position; the smaller bow section was beached in Whitecliff Bay. No other information; casualties not known 8. Command of the escort force fell to the senior officer present, and could change as each new ship arrived. Any tactical arrangements had to be made on the spot, and communicated by signal lamp to each ship in turn. The ships were unaccustomed to working together, and often had no common battle plan or tactics.

Convoyy These deficiencies led to a major defeat in October when Convoy HX 79 from Halifax to Liverpool was attacked by a wolfpack of five U-boats remaining after an attack on convoy SC Convoy escort. Initially unprotected, a force of 11 warships were assembled but 12 ships in the convoy were sunk from attacks during the night while none of the U-boats were damaged. By operating together under a single leader, groups were able to develop group tactics and practice their use; with the issue of a single short command the various ships of the group, often out of sight of each other, could be relied upon to act in a co-ordinated fashion.

In a ten-day period infour U-boats were sunk with the loss of three of Germany's top U-boat commanders.

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Later these tactics were standardized and taught to all escort group commanders at the Western Convoy escort Tactical Unit. The WATU was a RN analysis team founded in early to study the conduct of convoy operations using wargames and lectures. The unit, made up of naval officers and the young women of the WRNS disseminated instructions to over 5, Allied officers with "considerable success" [5].